by Charles Hongseok Choi
edited by Jonathan Webb
“Immigrating to Canada was a hard, but the most appropriate decision”, was what my father told me when I discussed my essay with him.[i] For him, the decision to leave the Republic of Korea (ROK) depended on many factors, including my education and the search for a better quality of life than in Korea. Though both my parents were working at Samsung, their quality of life was poor and through the advice of their university seniors who had already immigrated, our family made the decision to follow suit.[ii] During my life in Canada, I was not a Canadian or a Korean alone, but a Korean Canadian. I loved every aspect of the Canadian life, but my ties and the relations with the Korean community did not end. Institutions, such as churches, Korean schools, and Korean organizations united and connected Korean immigrants who left their country, including myself. To this day, Korean Canadian institutions offer fundamental support to Korean Canadian immigrant families in Canada. This paper will review churches, where Korean Canadians mobilized support for each other through tough immigration journeys; local niche organizations that Korean immigrants formed to support issues back home; and Korean schools, which ensured the continuity of the Korean language in families.
BACKGROUND TO KOREAN IMMIGRATION TO CANADA
The flow of Korean immigrants to Canada began with the Korean diaspora and the removal of visa barriers between Korea and Canada. Families began to look at Canada as an option for immigration, rather than South American countries that were popular at that time, such as Argentina, Chile, and Brazil. Before the immigration regulation overhauls in the 1960s through Order-in-Councils, Canada’s racist immigration policies, such as the Immigration Act of 1952, rarely permitted immigration from countries outside European and American countries.[iii] During these times, only a few Koreans arrived in Canada as international students, studying in the major cities of Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal.
Another factor that increased Korean immigration was the Asian Economic Crisis of the 1990s. The economic crisis hit many South Koreans and caused many to suffer devastating economic losses and unemployment. Canada, a growing economic power, became an option for numerous Koreans. As stated by Choi and Park in their analysis of Korean immigration to Canada, the Toronto region, specifically, had various opportunities in the manufacturing industry that could help “absorb immigrant workers”.[iv]
Moreover, parents worried for the future and studies of their children looked at Canada as a possible country for immigration. This was due to the increasing extracurricular activities demanded of Korean students, the stress and intensity of the programs, and the undesirable nature of competition amongst the students. As many immigrant parents to Canada testified, their children’s education was a primary reason for their immigration.[v] Interestingly, older students also considered Canada as a destination to study abroad due to the influences of Canadian missionaries. They connected Korean students with Canadian universities and helped them settle into Canadian communities.
It must be noted that, while this paper discusses “Koreans”, the discourse focusing on Korean immigrants surrounds immigrants from the Republic of Korea due to the restrictive nature of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea’s (DPRK) immigration laws. The majority of individuals from the DPRK arrived as refugees or immigrants from the ROK, after claiming refugee status there and obtaining citizenship.
THE ROLE OF CHURCHES
Korean churches in Canada acted as institutions that forged the Korean-Canadian community: they brought Koreans together, assisting them with struggles of the immigrant life. Canadian missionaries in Korea played a large role in building the church as a place of support in which Koreans relied on the missionaries for education, health, and religious services. Through the different services that Canadian missionaries offered to Koreans, they managed to open them up to Christianity.
In 1888, Canadian Presbyterian missionary James S. Gale arrived in Korea with funding from Toronto’s YMCA.[vi] His desire to focus on the education of Korean students during his time in Korea led him to establish YMCA Korea, the Chungsin Secondary School – which was the predecessor to the current Chungsin University–, and wrote the first Korean-English dictionary.[vii] Following in the steps of Gale, the Canadian missionary Oliver R. Avison also arrived in Korea. As a missionary in Korea focusing on the health sector, he received funding to build the Severance Hospital in Korea in 1904.[viii]
The massive role played by Canadian missionaries in establishing educational institutions, medical institutions, and in fighting for independence alongside Koreans during the Japanese colonization period opened up Koreans to Christianity as a religion and, as well, to Canada as a potential country to move to. In addition, the contrast between the brutal Japanese rule and the kindness of Canadian missionaries created a foundation for Christianity to spread all throughout Korea and to the foreign countries where Koreans continued to practice Christianity as they established churches within their new communities.
The first Korean church in Canada was located in Vancouver – the Korean United Church of Vancouver, which was established in 1966.[ix] With a small congregation of thirty people, the church initially had its service at Union College, now the Vancouver School of Theology.[x] With the increase in Korean immigrants across Canada, which was not only limited to Vancouver, churches began to spring up in Montreal, Toronto, London (Ontario), and Edmonton.[xi] The 1970s became a development phase for these churches, but in the 1980s, with about 30 000 immigrants arriving in Toronto, Korean Protestant churches grew substantially, reaching over two hundred churches in the Toronto area alone.[xii] This meant that almost all of one’s Korean friends, families, and peers attended church, creating peer pressure for many Korean Canadians to attend church and identify themselves as religious – either Protestant orCatholic. This is a big contrast to – Korea, where only just ver half the country’s citizens identify themselves as religious.[xiii]
It is important to note that Korean churches of different Christian denominations offer benevolent and charitable services for Korean immigrants, organize movements, and offer Korean language institutions. However, the specific proceedings of many Korean Canadian churches were not necessarily documented or available on public platforms. This is because churches often acted within local spheres: performing acts of charity or bringing people together within their communities. Even if such acts were documented, they would most likely be kept within private domains of either the churches or their members. Notwithstanding these restrictions, this paper highlights the substantial work done by the Korean United Church in Canada because of its long history and of its Canadian origin.
Religious institutions played a great role in the lives of Korean immigrants in Canada.[xiv] Though some of these churches had a negative reputation, it was inevitable that Korean churches helped ease the lives of immigrants. For many new immigrants in Canada did not know where to start their lives – they did not know the language so they could not find work, they did not know where to shop groceries, etc. Through churches and church attendees, new immigrants gained knowledge on such ways of life, including, but not limited to, where to get haircuts, where to buy Korean groceries, and where to access Korean doctors. Information on how to get such Korean services was imperative for immigrants who could not speak English. Furthermore, churches became a way for many Koreans to socialize, make close friends, and new social connections. Many of the church attendees were previously in the shoes of newly immigrant families, and were thus more than willing to help introduce these families to Canada. Shop owners and entrepreneurs could advertise their businesses and attract customers by promoting their businesses in church directories and to the congregation.[xv] By this time, Koreans commonly became aware that the role of churches was not only to be a religious institution, but also to unite new immigrants and those who had been living here together – to form a community, where Koreans can learn the Korean Canadian lifestyle in Canada.
Additionally, churches began to host programs for new immigrants. The Grace Community Church of Surrey, British Columbia, for example, sends out a group of volunteers from the church to Vancouver International Airport every week. This group aids immigrants arriving in Canada for the first time. The team “offers mobile phones” and invites the newly arrived immigrants to worship at their church.[xvi] Though Canada’s percentage of religious citizens continues to decrease, the growth in Korean churches in Canada is not slowing down: churches have maintained their historically significant role in assisting newly immigrated families. The institution of the church has been imperative for the Korean community to survive and mobilize in Canada.
THE ROLE OF KOREAN SCHOOLS
Korean schools fulfilled the wishes of immigrant parents to immerse their children in the Korean language and thus to sustain their culture. Due to a limited presence of the Korean language in Canada at the beginning of Korean immigration, parents commonly wanted their children to be fluent in both Korean and English. On the one hand, parents wanted their children to maintain their connection with Korea, to be able to communicate with their relatives, who perhaps knew little to no English. This was a common issue that parents were facing, as many children were losing their fluency in Korean because they were attending day school taught in English. To achieve this, Koreans formed individual Korean Schools, with most teachers being parents volunteering their time to teach Korean within Korean churches.[xvii] Nonetheless, parents also wanted their children to assimilate into the surrounding English-speaking environment. This dual desire had the effect of cultivating a uniquely Korean Canadian identity for new generations of immigrants.
In 1986, Korean schools in Ontario proposed a common goal to unite all the divided institutions together. This led to the formation of the Korean Canadian Schools Association of Ontario. Such a formation already demonstrates the extent to which Korean Canadians had close ties to one another and thus conjugated together. This association allowed for the sharing of useful and improved resources across the board to improve and develop the program.[xviii] It is also interesting to note that these associations opened through government funding. From 1963 to 1969, the Lester B. Pearson government appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism to inquire on bilingualism factors. Furthermore, the Royal Commission was tasked with reporting on “the cultural contribution of other ethnic groups and the means of preserving this contribution and enhancing multiculturalism in Canada”.[xix]
The official report, published in 1970, recommended that “the teachings of languages other than English and French…be incorporated as options in the public elementary school programme”.[xx] Similarly, the commission, under recommendation five, advised for additional languages to be optional for students to learn in secondary schools.[xxi] Under recommendation five, the commission requested for the necessary training, teaching staff, and textbook materials for teaching. In response, the federal government, on 8 October 1971, agreed and forwarded these amendments along with their own to the provincial governments, as primary and secondary education was strictly under the prerogative powers of the provincial governments, as outlined in section 93 of the British North America Act, 1867.[xxii] This landmark report by the Royal Commission and the recognition by the federal government significantly changed government policy at the federal and provincial level. The government provided funding to Korean language schools across the country and local high schools and school boards implemented Korean language courses for credits.[xxiii] In 1978, the provincial government of Ontario also provided funding for Korean schools through the Ontario Heritage Language Program.[xxiv]
Taking note of the above, the Republic of Korea’s government thereon took on a special interest into Korean language schools in foreign countries. To promote the Korean language and in an attempt to help Korean children maintain their heritage, culture, and language, the Republic of Korea’s government began funding Korean language schools across country and around the world.[xxv] The government of Korea founded CAKEC, the Korean Education Centre in Canada in 1981.[xxvi] Operating from the Korean Embassy in Toronto, the Centre is the umbrella organization for all Korean language courses in Canada.
Furthermore, the Korean government provides the majority of funding to Korean language schools in small churches, thus allowing them to function.[xxvii] These schools are open to the church’s congregation, but operate separately from the church.[xxviii] The continued strive for the next generation of Korean Canadian children to maintain their culture and language triggered the formation of local Korean schools and organizations. The institutions became influential to governments in Canada and back home in the Republic of Korea to support the children by funding the institutions so that their children could acquire the best education possible of their mother tongue. The Korean government’s willingness to financially aid its foreign community is a sign of recognition towards efforts of the immigrants to maintain ties to their home country. This significantly highlights the unique nature of the Korean Canadian immigrant experience: a community that highly valued loyalty to its mother country and united together for this purpose, which is an attitude perhaps not prevalent across many other diasporic communities.
THE ROLE OF DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS
Learning the language was not the only way of retaining ties with the Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea did not achieve its current democracy until 1987, and to achieve this, many had protested against the several authoritarian regimes, including the Lee, Park, and Chun regimes, not only in the Republic itself, but also in foreign lands such as Canada where there was a presence of Koreans.[xxix] The people’s goal of democratization in Korea involved various movements: the April Revolution of 1960, the Gwangju Democratization Movement of 1980, and the June Struggle of 1987, which saw university students lead the movement to protest against the authoritarian regime. In Canada, churches were the easiest avenue to mobilize Koreans for a particular event or crisis happening back home. This was because the majority of Koreans in Canada attended church, as churches remained a place where new Korean immigrants came to find a community where they could find belonging. This led to the dissemination of different ideas and opinions, and the organization of groups tied by political causes, especially ones that happened back home. For instance, as one of the most vocal activists in opposition to the regime, Reverend Kim Jae Joon’s life was in constant danger.[xxx] The Toronto Korean United Church played a grand role during Park Chung Hee’s military regime by allowing Reverend Kim to remain and hid at the church.
Furthermore, the Church was proactive in mobilizing the community for protests and prayer nights in Toronto. When the Gwangju Democratic Movement of 1980 erupted, the Toronto Korean United Church published a statement criticizing the authoritarian regime of Chun Doo Hwan and gathered to host a prayer meeting for “unjustly killed souls”.[xxxi] The church also organized a protest against the actions of the Chun regime in front of city hall in Toronto.[xxxii] Widely across Canada, Koreans recognized the Toronto Korean United Church as the leading organization of movements, protests, and petitions for the democratization of the Republic of Korea.[xxxiii]
The church did not stop there. Chun’s authoritarian regime was confident that the opposition leader, Kim Dae Jung, was behind the Gwangju Democratic Movement of 1980. In an effort to curtail the opposition movement, the Chun regime arrested and sentenced Kim to death. Once the news of the situation in Korea arrived in Canada, Koreans met at the Toronto United Korean Church to form the “Ad Hoc Citizens’ Group for Saving Kim Dae Jung & Other Arrested Leaders in South Korea”. As stated in an advertisement in the Toronto Star, it called for supporters to, “[…] be ready to sign a petition to be circulated in your church”. This group also appealed to the House of Commons in Ottawa to condemn the actions of President Chun Doo Hwan in Korea.[xxxiv] Member of Parliament Bill Clarke of Vancouver Quadra indeed introduced “South Korea – Death Sentence on Kim Dae-Jung – Motion under S.O. 43”. This motion obtained unanimous consent in the House of Commons to “express its serious concerns over the action of the military court in South Korea…and that this House implore President Chun to use his ultimate executive power to secure the release of Mr. Kim”.[xxxv] With this motion passing, Canada became the first foreign country to call for the release of Kim Dae Jung. This motion marked a significant beginning for the democratization of the Republic of Korea with Kim becoming the President of the Republic in 1998.[xxxvi]
Additionally, the Council for Democracy in Toronto was an institution dedicated to the pro-democracy movement in the Republic of Korea’s campaign. Founded on 19 April 1974, the Council was involved in numerous demonstrations against the authoritarian regime in Korea. The Council organized its protest in front of the United States of America’s Consulate and the Republic of Korea’s Consulate in Toronto on 27 May 1980, nine days after the Gwangju Democratic Movement of 1980 began. About one hundred Korean Canadians protested for about one hour, calling for the “termination of the leaders of the Gwangju crisis”.[xxxvii]
When the council had heard that President Chun would be paying Canada a formal visit, it made plans for protests. The council organized Korean Canadians on a trip to Ottawa. The group waited along with two hundred supporters of the Chun regime in front of the residence of the Governor General to ‘welcome’ the President. As the President’s car passed the crowd, the protestors revealed their picket signs that said “Free Kim Dae Jung”, “Murderer Chun Doo Hwan be Gone”, “Down with Butcher Chun”. Due to this situation, the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) detained several protestors. These protestors were then escorted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police out of the event.[xxxviii] The protest demonstrated the efforts of Korean Canadians to support the democratic rights of their fellow countrymen. Although they did not live in Korea and were no longer citizens, their eagerness to support democratization for the good of their mother country persisted. This is a further testament to the loyalty of Korean-Canadians to their Korean identities.
Furthermore, the Council for Democracy took many actions: they fundraised four thousand dollars for the Gwangju Democratization Movement; held a memorial service for the death of Mr. Park Chong Chul in 1987; organized petitions condemning the sexual torture of Ms. Kwon In Suk; and held a memorial service for martyr Lee Han Yeol on 19 July 1987.[xxxix]
Moreover, the Minjung Newspaper, which had a Korean anti-authoritarian and pro-democratic view, began printing on 23 February 1979 in Toronto.[xl] The words min and jung are Chinese characters words used in traditional Korean language that combine to form minjung, meaning the people, the public, or the mass. In a sense, this newspaper reflected the desires and movements of the people by covering many pro-democratic movements.
The democratic organizations allowed Korean Canadians to become involved in the movement for democratization. Though they were Korean Canadians, living across the world in Canada, they still maintained strong ties with their home country and considered the massacres and violence back home as an attack on themselves. These organizations played a crucial tool in mobilizing and gathering the Korean Canadian public to support its home country.
Even though there is limited research and information on Korean Canadian language schools, churches, and democratic institutions established in Canada, many point to the same conclusion – they played a grandiose role in uniting Korean Canadian immigrants together. Korean Canadians only have a recent presence of about sixty years in Canada, but their passion in gathering to create institutions that benefited the Korean Canadian community at large is remarkable. In addition, the establishments allowed for next generation of Korean Canadian immigrants to maintain their culture, heritage, and language through the creation of Korean schools across the country.
Moreover, the role of churches unsurprisingly still plays an immense role in the lives of Korean Canadians and new Korean immigrants to Canada. Korean Canadians’ efforts to support the democratization movement back in Korea also led to community engagements and movements through protests, petitions, and demonstrations. Immigrating to another country is extremely difficult, especially when one does not know the language and is foreign to its customs and traditions. As a child of immigrant parents, I cannot think of how difficult it must have been for them to resign from a high paid job to come to a new country with nothing. If it had not been for the Korean Canadian institutions and community in Canada, it would have been very challenging to settle in Canada. It is because of these established Koreans and their institutions that Korean Canadian immigrants are able to settle easily and spread out across Canada, and amidst the country’s vast expanse, are able to unite and to maintain ties with both the Canadian and Korean communities.
Charles Hongseok Choi is a third year Bachelor of Arts student graduating in April 2021. He is majoring in Canadian Studies and History, with a minor in Political Science. Though he was born in Seoul, Republic of Korea, his family immigrated to Toronto, Canada when he was five years old. As a Korean-Canadian, Charles hopes to further his research on Korean-Canadian content in a historical and political context. Charles’ current research is on (1) the influence of convenience stores on Korean-Canadians and (2) immigration and refugee patterns of Korean-Canadians.
[i] Dustin Eunsu Choi, personal discussion, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi. March, 2018.
[iii] Library and Archives Canada. Statutes of Canada. An Act Respecting Immigration, 1952. Ottawa: SC 1 Elizabeth II, Chapter 42
[iv] Republic of Korea, “통일원, 국가기록원, 세계의 한민족 : 미국, 캐나다,” by 최협 and 박찬웅, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi (통일원, 1996), 241.
[v] “Koreans Are Leaving Korea,” Korea Times (Seoul, Korea), January 19, 2016, accessed March 27, 2018, http://www.koreatimesus.com/koreans-are-leaving-korea/.
[vi] “James S. Gale. (기일),” Missionary Story, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi accessed June 26, 2019, http://www.yanghwajin.net/v2/mission/mission_34.html.
[vii] Young-Sik Yoo, The Impact of Canadian Missionaries in Korea: A Historical Survey of Early Canadian Mission Work, 1888-1898, Master’s thesis, University of Toronto, 1996 (Ottawa: National Library of Canada), 168, accessed June 26, 2019, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp04/NQ27810.pdf.
[viii] “Oliver R. Avison (어비신),” Missionary Story, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi accessed June 26, 2019, http://www.yanghwajin.net/v2/mission/mission_16.html.
[ix] David Bai, The Canadian Encyclopedia, ed. Donald Baker and Jon Tattrie, s.v. “Korean Canadians,” June 17, 2010, accessed March 27, 2018, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/koreans/.
[x] “밴쿠버 한인연합교회 창립 50 주년 맞아,” trans. Charles Hongseok Choi Joongang Newspaper (Vancouver), March 8, 2016, accessed March 27, 2018, http://www.okja.org/miju_dong/18548.
[xi] Ha Duck Noh, Kyung Mok Lee, and Oon Young Kim, 캐나다 한인사 / History of Korean Canadians, comp. Oon Young Kim, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi (Toronto, Ontario: Korean Canadian Cultural Association (KCCA), 2013), 307, 310.
[xii] Ibid., 325.
[xiii] David Bai, The Canadian Encyclopedia.
[xiv] Canada, Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, Privy Council Office, A preliminary report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Book IV The Cultural Contributions of the Other Ethnic Groups, by Davidson Dunton and Jean-Louis Gagnon, vol. 4 (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971), 107.
[xv] Bong-Hwan Kim, “Understanding the integration experiences of Korean Canadians” (Master’s thesis, Winnipeg, The University of Manitoba, 2013), 38, accessed March 27, 2018, https://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/bitstream/handle/1993/18868/Kim_Bong- Hwan.PDF.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
[xvi] Douglas Todd, “Metro’s 70,000 ethnic Koreans: Most turn to fervent, conservative Christianity,” Vancouver Sun, March 2, 2014, accessed March 27, 2018, http://vancouversun.com/news/staff-blogs/metros-70000-ethnic- koreans-most-drawn-to-enthusiastic-conservative-christianitys.
[xvii] Canada, Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 65.
[xviii] “소개(Introduction)”, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi. Welcome to Korean Canadian Schools Association of Ontario, March 17, 2014, accessed March 27, 2018, https://koreanschools.org/introduction-en/.
[xix] G. Laing, The Canadian Encyclopedia, s.v. “Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism,” August 12, 2013, accessed March 27, 2018, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/royal-commission-on- bilingualism-and-biculturalism/.
[xx] Canada, Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 141.
[xxi] Ibid., 145.
[xxii] Library and Archives Canada. Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Debates, 28th Parliament, 3rd Session, Volume 8 (8 October 1971): Appendix, 8584.
[xxiii] 고한나, “캐나다 온타리오 지역 한국학교의 한국어 교육 현황과 향후 과제 연구 방향,” report, 9, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi, accessed March 27, 2018, https://koreanschools.org/%ED%95%99%EC%88%A0%EC%9E%90%EB%A3%8C/.
[xxiv] Canada, Ontario Ministry of Education, International Languages Elementary (ILE) Program (2012), 3.
[xxv] 고한나, “캐나다 온타리오 지역 한국학교의 한국어 교육 현황과 향후 과제 연구 방향”.
[xxvi] 이병승, “About Us / 인사말,” trans. Charles Hongseok Choi, accessed March 27, 2018, https://www.cakec.com/about-kr.
[xxvii] Jihyun Jung, personal discussion, trans. Charles Hongseok Choi. June 2017.
[xxviii] Canada, Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, 100.
[xxix] 두산백과, s.v. “제 6 공화국,” trans. Charles Hongseok Choi, accessed March 27, 2018, http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=1141297&cid=40942&categoryId=33385.
[xxx] Ha Duck Noh, 캐나다 한인사 / History of Korean Canadians, 317.
[xxxi] “캐나다민주화 운동, 삼위일체가 되다.” Trans. Charles Hongseok Choi. 함께쓰는 6 월항쟁. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.610.or.kr/board/content/page/31/post/476?.
[xxxiv] Ad Hoc Citizens’ Group for Saving Kim Dae Jung & Other Arrested Leaders in South Korea, “An Appeal to the Canadian Public : Life of Kim Dae Jung & Democracy in Korea are at Stake Now,” advertisement, Toronto Star, August 28, 1980.
[xxxv] Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Debates, 32nd Parl., 1st sess., 5 (1980-83) : 4936-4937.
[xxxvi] “토론토 한국민주사회건설협의회”.
[xxxviii] “RCMP, KCIA men blocks off protesters against Chun visit,” Canada Asia Currents 4, no. 2 (Autumn 1982): 6.
[xxxix] “토론토 한국민주사회건설협의회”.
[xl] Ha Duck Noh, 캐나다 한인사 / History of Korean Canadians, 387.
Ad Hoc Citizens’ Group for Saving Kim Dae Jung & Other Arrested Leaders in South Korea. “An Appeal to the Canadian Public : Life of Kim Dae Jung & Democracy in Korea are at Stake Now.” Advertisement. Toronto Star, August 28, 1980.
Bai, David. “Korean Canadians.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. Edited by Donald Baker and Jon Tattrie. June 17, 2010. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/koreans/.
Canada. Ontario Ministry of Education. International Languages Elementary (ILE) Program. 2012. 3.
Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Debates, 28th Parl., 3d sess., vol. 8 (1970-1972).
Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Debates, 32nd Parl., 1st sess., vol. 5 (1980-83).
Canada. Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. Privy Council Office. A preliminary report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Book IV The Cultural Contributions of the Other Ethnic Groups. By Davidson Dunton and Jean- Louis Gagnon. vol. 4. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971.
“James S. Gale. (기일).” Missionary Story. Accessed June 26, 2019. Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. http://www.yanghwajin.net/v2/mission/mission_34.html.
Kim, Bong-Hwan. “Understanding the integration experiences of Korean Canadians.” Master’s thesis, Winnipeg, The University of Manitoba, 2013. Accessed March 27, 2018. https://mspace.lib.umanitoba.ca/bitstream/handle/1993/18868/Kim_Bong- Hwan.PDF.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
“Koreans Are Leaving Korea.” Korea Times (Seoul, Korea), January 19, 2016. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.koreatimesus.com/koreans-are-leaving-korea/.
Laing, G. “Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. August 12, 2013. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/royal-commission-on-bilingualism-and- biculturalism/.
Library and Archives Canada. Statutes of Canada. An Act Respecting Immigration, 1952. Ottawa: SC 1 Elizabeth II, Chapter 42
Noh, Ha Duck, Kyung Mok Lee, and Oon Young Kim. 캐나다 한인사 / History of Korean Canadians. Compiled by Oon Young Kim., Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. Toronto, Ontario: Korean Canadian Cultural Association (KCCA), 2013.
“Oliver R. Avison (어비신).” Missionary Story. Accessed June 26, 2019. Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. http://www.yanghwajin.net/v2/mission/mission_16.html.
“RCMP, KCIA men blocks off protesters against Chun visit.” Canada Asia Currents 4, no. 2 (Autumn 1982): 5-6.
Republic of Korea. 통일원. 국가기록원. 세계의 한민족 : 미국, 캐나다. By 최협 and 박찬웅. Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. 통일원, 1996. 241.
Todd, Douglas. “Metro’s 70,000 ethnic Koreans: Most turn to fervent, conservative Christianity.” Vancouver Sun, March 2, 2014. March 2, 2014. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://vancouversun.com/news/staff-blogs/metros-70000-ethnic-koreans-most-drawn-to- enthusiastic-conservative-christianitys.
Yoo, Young-Sik. The Impact of Canadian Missionaries in Korea: A Historical Survey of Early Canadian Mission Work, 1888-1898. Master’s thesis, University of Toronto, 1996. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. Accessed June 26, 2019. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp04/NQ27810.pdf.
고한나. 캐나다 온타리오 지역 한국학교의 한국어 교육 현황과 향후 과제 연구 방향. Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. Report. Accessed March 27, 2018. https://koreanschools.org/%ED%95%99%EC%88%A0%EC%9E%90%EB%A3%8C/.
“밴쿠버 한인연합교회 창립 50 주년 맞아.” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. Joongang Newspaper (Vancouver), March 8, 2016. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.okja.org/miju_dong/18548.
“소개(Introduction).” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. Welcome to Korean Canadian Schools Association of Ontario. March 17, 2014. Accessed March 27, 2018. https://koreanschools.org/introduction-en/.
이병승. “About Us / 인사말.” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. Accessed March 27, 2018. https://www.cakec.com/about-kr.
“제 6 공화국.” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. 두산백과. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=1141297&cid=40942&categoryId=33385.
“캐나다민주화 운동, 삼위일체가 되다.” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. 함께쓰는 6 월항쟁. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.610.or.kr/board/content/page/31/post/476.
“토론토 한국민주사회건설협의회.” Translated by Charles Hongseok Choi. 함께쓰는 6 월항쟁. Accessed March 27, 2018. http://www.610.or.kr/board/content/page/31/post/477.